Ahmad, Irfan and Zakaria Siddiqui. 2017. “Democracy in Jail: Over-representation of Minorities in Indian Prisons.” EPW. 52(44): 98-106.
Based on data from the Prison Statistics India, this article demonstrates an over-representation of minorities such as Muslims, Adivasis, and Dalits in Indian jails. It offers an anthropological and sociological analysis of this over-representation. The authors connect it to structural–political factors, a connection the scant Indian literature rarely makes. They relate the data to literature on over-representation of minorities in jails in Western democracies, about which scholars use terms such as “penal democracy” and “punishing democracy.” The authors then draw on recent memoirs of imprisoned Indian “terrorists,” and argue that their imprisonment generates a notion of democracy that is conceivably an alternative. At its heart is the identification imprisonment generates amongst fellow humans through a shared vocabulary of injustice, pain, human finitude, and vulnerability.
PDF of the article here: https://www.academia.edu/35049515/Ahmad_Irfan_and_Zakaria_Siddiqui._2017._Democracy_in_Jail_Over-representation_of_Minorities_in_Indian_Prisons._EPW._52_44_98-106